Angle Beam Transducers
CTS Angle Beam Transducers and various wedge combinations are typically used to launch refracted shear waves or surface waves in a test material. VF designed all of its Angle Beam Transducers with high gain and optimum resolution (GP Series). Special broadband, high resolution transducers (HR Series) can be substituted upon request. All replaceable wedges are offered in standard rexolite or polystyrene depending upon frequency. In addition, special high temperature wedges are available up to 500°F. As an option, VF can contour Angle Beam wedges for axial or circumferential pipe or bar inspection.
- Weld inspection
- Pipe and bar inspection
- Surface wave inspection
- High temperature flaw detection
- Crack detection and sizing
Angle Beam Transducers utilize the basic principle of refraction and mode conversion to produce refracted shear or longitudinal waves in the test material. The angle of incidence required to produce the desired refracted wave is calculated from Snell's Law. The following formula may be used to calculate the wedge angle (Q1) required to generate the desired mode and refracted angle (Q2) in the material under test.
ø 1 = Wedge angle
ø 2 = Angle of refracted wave in test material
V 1 = Longitudinal velocity of wedge material
V 2 = Velocity of material being inspected for the desired mode
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